Chemical elements
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Alkali Phosphides
      Alkaline Earth Phosphides
      Copper Silver and Gold Phosphides
      Zinc Group Phosphides
      Aluminium Phosphide
      Titanium Group Phosphides
      Tin Phosphides
      Lead Phosphides
      Arsenic Phosphides
      Antimony Phosphides
      Bismuth Phosphides
      Chromium Phosphides
      Molybdenum and Tungsten Phosphides
      Manganese Phosphides
      Iron Phosphides
      Cobalt Phosphides
      Phosphonium Chloride
      Phosphonium Bromide
      Phosphonium Iodide
      Hydrogen Phosphides
      Phosphorus Trifluoride
      Phosphorus Pentafluoride
      Phosphorus Trifluorodichloride
      Phosphorus Trifluorodibromide
      Fluophosphoric Acid
      Phosphorus Dichloride
      Phosphorus Trichloride
      Phosphorus Pentachloride
      Phosphorus Chlorobromides
      Phosphorus Chloroiodides
      Phosphorus Tribromide
      Phosphorus Pentabromide
      Phosphorus Diiodide
      Phosphorus Triiodide
      Phosphorus Oxytrifluoride
      Phosphorus Oxychloride
      Pyrophosphoryl Chloride
      Metaphosphoryl Chloride
      Phosphoryl Monochloride
      Phosphoryl Dichlorobromide
      Phosphoryl Chlorodibromide
      Phosphoryl Tribromide
      Metaphosphoryl Bromide
      Phosphoryl Oxyiodides
      Phosphorus Thiotrifluoride
      Phosphorus Thiotrichloride
      Phosphorus Thiotribromide
      Mixed Phosphorus Thiotrihalides
      Phosphorus Suboxides
      Phosphorus Trioxide
      Phosphorus Dioxide
      Phosphorus Pentoxide
      Hypophosphorous Acid
      Phosphorous Acid
      Meta- and Pyro-phosphorous Acids
      Hypophosphoric Acid
      Tetraphosphorus Trisulphide
      Diphosphorus Trisulphide
      Tetraphosphorus Heptasulphide
      Phosphorus Pentasulphide
      Phosphorus Oxysulphides
      Phosphorus Thiophosphites
      Phosphorus Thiophosphates
      Phosphorus Selenophosphates
      Phosphorus Sulphoselenides
      Diamidophosphorous Acid
      Phosphorus Triamide
      Monamidophosphoric Acid
      Diamidophosphoric Acid
      Triamidophosphoric Acid
      Dimetaphosphimic Acid ≡P=
      Trimetaphosphimic Acid
      Tetrametaphosphimic Acid
      Penta- and Hexametaphosphimic Acid
      Monamidodiphosphoric Acid
      Diamidodiphosphoric Acid
      Triamidodiphosphoric Acid
      Nitrilotrimetaphosphoric acid
      Monothioamidophosphoric Acids
      Thiophosphoryl Nitride
      Di- Tri-imido- and -amido-thiophosphates
      Imidotrithiophosphoric Acid =
      Phosphorus Chloronitrides
      Triphosphonitrilic Chloride
      Tetraphosphonitrilic Chloride
      Pentaphosphonitrilic Chloride
      Hexaphosphonitrilic Chloride
      Heptaphosphonitrilic Chloride
      Triphosphonitrilic Bromide
      Phosphorus Halonitrides
      Phosphorus Nitride
      Pyrophosphoric Acid
      Phosphoric acids
    Slow Oxidation
    Phosphatic Fertilisers

Copper, Silver and Gold Phosphides

The copper phosphides are crystalline compounds of metallic appearance and properties which are usually prepared by direct union of the elements. Phosphorus begins to combine with copper at about 400° C., and at 700° C. the copper was found to take up 20 per cent., some of which was expelled at higher temperatures. Slightly above the melting-point of the phosphide 14 per cent, was retained, which corresponds to tri-cuprous phosphide, Cu3P. The velocity of the combination increases between 600° and 700° C. At ordinary pressures 15 per cent, of phosphorus is the limit of the amount which will remain dissolved in the fused mixture, and some of this is present as red phosphorus.

Cu3P is a crystalline steel-grey or silvery-white substance which is harder than wrought iron. The melting-point is about 1018° C. and is lowered by additions of copper, as that of pure copper is by small additions of phosphorus; the Cu-Cu3P freezing-point curves meet at a eutectic which corresponds to 8-2 per cent, of phosphorus with a freezing-point of 707° C.

The toughness and resistance to corrosion of the phosphor-bronzes are due to the presence of solid solutions of the phosphides in copper.

Cu3P was also prepared by the action of phosphine on ammoniacal cuprous oxide and on the metal at about 200° C. and on cuprous chloride. Cu5P2 was made by the action of PF3 or PCl3 on copper at a red heat, also by the action of phosphine on cupric hydroxide or carbonate, and red phosphorus on cupric nitrate. When heated to a red heat it gave Cu3P and Cu. Cu3P2 is said to be formed by the action of phosphine on cupric chloride. When yellow phosphorus was boiled with cupric sulphate and the precipitate washed and treated with acid dichromate the residue had this composition. The higher phosphides, of which CuP and CuP2 have been reported, are powders of uncertain composition, easily oxidised by nitric acid or by heating in oxygen.

Other phosphides which have been prepared by direct combination, or by reaction in solution, are — Cu5P2, Cu2P, Cu3P2, CuP, CuP2.

Silver phosphides, AgP, Ag2P3 and AgP2, were said to be produced by heating the elements together, or by passing phosphorus vapour over heated silver. Molten silver absorbs phosphorus freely, but rejects most if not nearly all on solidification. Silver phosphides have also been prepared by other reactions, and it is noteworthy that the action of phosphine on silver nitrate gives a compound, Ag3P.3AgNO3, analogous to that which is first formed in the well-known test for arsine.

Gold, like silver, when in the molten state dissolves phosphorus and rejects it on solidification. A phosphide AuP has been prepared by passing a mixture of dry phosphine and ether vapour into an ether solution of gold chloride. The phosphorus is only loosely combined and is given off when the compound is warmed. Such phosphides behave like free phosphorus; they burn in the air, are oxidised by nitric acid, etc., and hydrolysed by water and alkalies.

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